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Glossary

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Acidity
A tart and tangy quality that makes coffee refreshing. Coffees that have less acid are milder, but too little acidity results in a flat-taste.
Aeropress
The Aeropress is a device where coffee is steeped for about 10 seconds and then forced through a paper microfilter, resulting in an espresso strength concentration of coffee. Wikipedia
Arabica
This is the earliest cultivated, most widely grown coffee tree species, producing approximately 70% of the world's coffee. Arabica coffee trees are generally grown at an elevation of between 3,500 and 7,000 feet. Higher elevations mean they take longer to mature resulting in a better flavor than Robusta beans. They also yield fewer beans per acre.
Automatic Drip
A convenient brewing method that takes the guesswork out of making coffee. It heats water in a reservoir, then pulses it through coffee that is resting in a filter.
Blends
Combining two or more single origin coffees to create unique flavors.
Body
The viscosity, or "thickness" of a coffee, which is described in terms such as light or heavy, water or syrupy, or rich and creamy.
Caffé Americano
A single or double shot of espresso combined with several ounces of extremely hot water to fill an American size cup.
Cherry
The common name for the fruit of the coffee tree. Each cherry contains two coffee beans, or one peaberry.
Coffee Filters
The filter keeps the grounds out of the coffee drink. Most commonly made of paper, those who desire a "cleaner" coffee taste are using alternative filter materials such as nylon.
Cold Water Method
A brewing method in which coarsely ground coffee steeps in cold water for several hours before filtering, resulting in a low-acid, light-bodied coffee drink.
Crema
The caramel colored foam that appears on top of a shot of espresso during the brewing process. Presence of crema means a properly poured espresso shot. The crema serves as a "lid" that contains the espresso aromas and flavors in the cup.
Cupping
A method used by professional tasters to evaluate the characteristics of different coffee beans. "Cupping" is to coffee what "tasting" is to wine.
Decaffeinated Coffee
Coffee where the caffeine has been removed, usually from the unroasted green coffee beans. One of four methods is used: direct solvent method, indirect solvent method, water only method or carbon dioxide method.
Double Shot
A 2-ounce shot of espresso using twice as much coffee grind as a single shot.
Espresso
Refers to both a roast of coffee and a brewing method. For brewing, coffee is ground almost to a powder then very hot water is forced under intense pressure through the grounds, a process known as extraction. Careful timing results in the flavorful oils being infused into the cup of coffee, but not the bitter acid flavors.
Espresso Con Panna
A shot of espresso with a small amount of whipped cream spooned over the shot.
Espresso Macchiato
A shot of espresso with a small amount of foamed milk spooned over the shot.
Fair Trade
Coffee grown under the criteria of the Fair Trade Federation, which strives for, "an equitable and fair partnership" between coffee growers and those who roast and sell coffee.
French Press
A popular method for making coffee at home and in cafes, it steeps ground coffee and hot water in a carafe. After a few minutes, a screened plunger is pressed down, separating the grounds away from the brewed coffee.
Flavor
How you perceive the coffee in terms such as nutty, smoky, spicy, etc.
Long Shot
Also know as lungo, it is espresso extracted to the volume of one and one-half ounces.
Organic Coffee
Coffee that has been grown and processed without the use of pesticides, herbicides or other chemicals.
Roasting
The flavor generating part of the coffee process where green beans are roasted to an internal temperature of around 400 degrees. Roasting times can range from a few minutes up to 30 minutes.
Robusta
Lesser quality coffee bean usually used in commercial blends. Also used for instant coffee. Robusta beans account for approximately 30 percent of the world's coffee.
Selectively Picked
The selective handpicking of only the ripe coffee cherries. See also Strip Picked.
Shade Grown
Coffee grown under a canopy of shade trees, which provide food and shelter for wildlife. It is how coffee was originally grown.
Short Shot
Also known as ristretto, it is espresso extracted to a volume of three-quarters of an ounce.
Sight Roasting
A process where the roastmaster checks the beans every few seconds near the end of the roasting process and determines when they have reached the correct level of doneness. This is opposed to using a timer and treating all beans as though they were the same.
Single-Origin Coffee
Coffees from one location or region, not blended with any other coffees or flavorings.
Straight Shot
Espresso extracted to a volume of one ounce.
Strip Picked
The entire crop of coffee cherries is picked at one time, regardless of whether it is ripe or not. See also Selectively Picked.
Swiss Water® Process
Swiss Water® is a trademarked decaffeination method that removes caffeine from coffee beans using hot water, steam, and activated charcoal rather than chemicals or solvents.
Sustainability
Coffee trade that exceeds the costs of living of all the involved parties and growing in a responsible manner so that future generations' natural resources will not be destroyed.
Turkish Coffee
Coffee is ground to a powder and is combined with an equal amount of sugar. It is boiled several times and the froth is served in small cups.
Vacuum Coffee Makers
Ground coffee is held in an upper container, while water is in a second, lower container. When the water is heated, it is forced to the top, where it steeps with the coffee.
Water Process
A method for removing caffeine from unroasted beans primarily using water. Chemicals may or may not be used to aid the process. See also Swiss Water® process.

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